2nd. Course
Community Management of Organic Residues

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From 16 to May 20, 2016, about 45 people, linked to composting projects in several Brazilian states, participated in an intensely training course in community management of urban organic solid waste conducted by CEPAGRO - Center for Studies and Promotion of Agriculture group in Florianopolis.

The information gathered in this report are complemented and better understood when you also read the report of the Course held in 2015, with basic information on CEPAGRO, the Buckets' Revolution, the Red River Park Camping, composting, drainage etc.

On the left, entering the Camping in the Red River State Park.
, one of the supporting facilities for campers.
posters produced by the environmental education team of CEPAGRO for the information of visitors.

The composting demonstrative site near the Camping entry

Below, at the end of the pile, the compost is ready when you cannot recognize the materials included - bark, leaves etc. Now the product is ready to be used or - if necessary, sieved, bagged, sold etc.

Presentation of the planned activities and the participants of the Course

Marcos José de Abreu and Julio Maestri, from the team responsible for the development and success of the Buckets' Revolution other CEPAGRO initiatives, welcome the Course's 40 participants.

Demonstration of the drainage system for larger compost piles

Marcos explains the system to drain the percolate liquid from the pile, when the volume of food waste is very significant.
The system includes the use of a waterproof canvas (the type used for larger banners that then are discarded) to cover the floor.
Over the canvas - guaranteed a slope of 3 to 5% - is placed a trough or stuck pipe, etc., covered with gravel, to collect the liquid.
Under the stuck pipe, is placed a receptacle to collect the percolated liquid which is then returned to the pile or used as liquid fertilizer after it is diluted.
Here is the drainage scheme.

On the left, a windrow with its drainage system.
On the right,
the drained fluid is a powerful liquid fertilizer, to be used diluted 1:10 before being applied to the soil.

Pile composting demonstration - incorporating fresh waste in a already formed
Demonstração de compostagem em leira - incorporação de resíduos frescos numa leira já formada

When the fresh waste arrives, the straw cover is shifted to the sides, and the new material is deposited on the center, minimally mixing it with the old waste of previous days, to accelerate the process.
After this mixing, a new layer of straw is used to cover the composted material.
This cover at the center will increase the height of the pile's side wall the next time you get new material to be composted.
Here is the composting scheme

Plenty of vegetal  residues available in the Park allows the piles have thick walls that protect the freshest organic waste deposited in the middle of the compost.

It is not recommendable to open, incorporate fresh waste and revolve daily the same pile (or the same portion of a pile), as this would slow down the process.
It is best to only do it every two to three days, using more than one pile or different parts of the same one at each day.

The main concern is to maintain an appropriate relationship between the nitrogen ( mostly found in fresh foods, food scraps and manure) and carbon (available from dried vegetables, leaves, straw, sawdust, etc.).
With much carbon and few nitrogen, the process takes longer and results in poor fertilizer ... Much nitrogen and few carbon make the windrow stink.
Also important, be sure that the pile is never too dry or soggy.

composting demonstration in boxes (with the help of earthworms) viable for apartments, offices etc.

Julio showed the vermicomposting system (where earthworms play a key role), which can be used even in indoor environments such as apartments and offices without the need to be outdoors or in contact with the soil.
The top two boxes alternate in receiving fresh waste and the bottom box collects the percolated liquid (has a tap), to be used as fertilizer, diluted 1:10.

Click here for more information on composting indoors

Visit the Buckets' Revolution composting minicentre and processing facility

Situated in the Chico Mendes
neighborhood, the project promotes the separation of organic waste by locals, who lead it to voluntary delivery points (PEVs) situated in some corners, and pour it in blue canisters of 50 liters, closed, which are then collected by a vehicle of Florianópolis municipality, at predetermined times.
The waste is then taken to a composting minicentre at the 
America Machado Dutra State School , where they are deposited in piles, in the system described above.

Below, in the processing site, where the finalized compost from the composting minicentre is sifted and bagged for sale or donation.

The Bucket's Revolution (Revolução dos Baldinhos) is a successful project, awarded, considered a "social technology" by the Fundação Banco do Brasil, which promotes its replication throughout Brazil.
But it is still not properly considered by government agencies related to urban cleaning and sanitation as a methodology to be formally recognized and funded, similar to what is done in the management of municipal solid waste in general - one of the largest municipal expenses.
That is, the project pleads receive from the Prefecture - per ton of organic waste deviated from the garbage truck and landfill - the same amount that the city spends to collect them in the community, transport them for kilometers to dump them in nature, at increasing financial and environmental costs.

Pause for evaluation and definition of projects to be developed in group

Presentation of BioAgreable ​​with allusive songs to recycling and composting

The BioAgradáveis ​​musicians make several jokes as they sing and play using decorations and instruments made from recycled waste and arousing interest in children and adults..

Panel on urban composting at the Legislative Assembly of Santa Catarina State

The centrality of composting in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy became clear during the panel discussion at the State Legislative Assembly, held on 18 May. Forming the panel, were the environmental analyst at the Ministry of Environment Lúcio Costa, the professor of Agricultural Science Center at UFSC Rick Miller, and agronomist Antonio Storel Junior, who coordinates the organic waste management with the public sanitation authority of São Paulo City Hall.

Lúcio Costa
Antônio Storel Jr.
 Rick Miller
 Marcos José de Abreu

At the end of the event, Marcos José de Abreu presented a manual and a booklet published by CEPAGRO, describing all the "social technology" involved in the Bucket's Revolution.
Click here to learn more about the Panel.

Visit to ProComposto - a commercial enterprise composting model

Installed in an area belonging to a charity institution that works with children at risk, the ProComposto receives about 4 tonnes of waste per day, some of them produced on the local restaurant (which serves about 130 meals a day) and nearby companies and clubs that need to properly dispose the organic waste they produce..

Below, the truck automatically downloads the contents of the plastic containers inside it. Note the use of a plastic lining that helps the hygiene of the operation and maintenance of the containers. These bags are made of compostable biodegradable plastic, made from cassava.

Upon arriving in the courtyard of ProComposto, the truck tilts its bucket directly at the place where waste will be taken to the proper pile.
To reach the top of the heap, which can be three meters high, the Procomposto rents, when necessary, a machine with a loader.
Below, the truck pouring 4 tons of organic waste. The bags used as lining of containers (large and small) are biodegradable, and can be included in the compost pile along with other organic residues.

Part of the prepared fertilizer is donated and the remainder is sold in bags of 30 and 5kg..

Visit to the SESC composting minicentre

Someone - please - write a basic text on the visit to the composting centre at SESC.
You can see this facility accessing the 2015 report

Contemplate Nature

A few meters from Camping is the Paradise Lagoon.
(Does anyone have a pic of the nearby beach ???)

Development of community projects for organic waste
During the course, participants were asked to form six groups to develop projects that include ideas and innovations from what had been spoken and experienced when visiting the initiatives in Florianopolis.
After, the projects were presented and discussed by the participants.
Nextly their results, in the communities they will be implemented, will be informed to you.

Practice of traditional Chinese exercises for farmers

Undoubtedly, physical fitness, energy, flexibility, endurance, balance, firmness, strength, are all important for those who practice agriculture, especially when one considers that the majority of urban farmers is made by older people - including women - who can benefit from the Chinese body practices.